© 2020 A&E Television Networks, LLC. Mao was the son of a prosperous peasant in Shaoshan, Hunan. Each of these regimes witnessed deliberately ordered mass 'cleansing' and extermination. After years of ill health, Mao suffered a series of heart attacks in 1976 and died at the age of 82. Mao Zedong had a total of ten children,[307] including: Mao's first and second daughters were left to local villagers because it was too dangerous to raise them while fighting the Kuomintang and later the Japanese. For example, they note that Mao was well aware that his policies would be responsible for the deaths of millions. The CPC declared that Lin was planning to depose Mao and posthumously expelled Lin from the party. Desiring personal and societal transformation, the Society gained 70–80 members, many of whom would later join the Communist Party. Jackson forcibly moved Native Americans, resulting in thousands of deaths, while Mao was at the helm during the violent years of the Cultural Revolution and the Great Leap Forward:[286]. Launching from the Japanese sub I-25, Nobuo Fujita piloted his light aircraft over the state of Oregon and firebombed Mount ...read more, Funeral services, attended by 250,000 mourners, are held for Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi’s Ba Dinh Square. [110] Lee Feigon considered Mao "draconian and authoritarian" when threatened, but opined that he was not the "kind of villain that his mentor Stalin was". [319], Mao had learned some English language, particularly through Zhang Hanzhi, who was his English teacher, interpreter and diplomat who later married Qiao Guanhua, Foreign Minister of China and the head of China's UN delegation. [56] Coming across newly translated Marxist literature by Thomas Kirkup, Karl Kautsky, and Marx and Engels—notably The Communist Manifesto—he came under their increasing influence, but was still eclectic in his views. [67] He found that the peasantry were increasingly restless and some had seized land from wealthy landowners to found communes. With the Soviet Union's assistance, new industrial plants were built and agricultural production eventually fell[clarification needed] to a point where industry was beginning to produce enough capital that China no longer needed the USSR's support. And all of them shared an ideology in which the end justified the means. Mao insisted that revolution in China would come from the country peasants, not the urban workers. He reunited with the decimated Zhu's army, and together they returned to Jinggangshan and retook the base. [69] At the First KMT Congress, held in Guangzhou in early 1924, Mao was elected an alternate member of the KMT Central Executive Committee, and put forward four resolutions to decentralise power to urban and rural bureaus. Mao remained passive as various factions within the Communist Party mobilised for the power struggle anticipated after his death. The Great Famine, sparked by Mao Zedong's radical 'Great Leap Forward', killed more than 40 million people and left a legacy of suffering and rural poverty that persists five decades on. Chiang flew into the area to lead his armies against Mao, but the Communists outmanoeuvred him and crossed the Jinsha River. They were initially successful, but the KMT counter-attacked, and pushed the CPC back; over the next few weeks, they fought an entrenched guerrilla war in the mountains. [326], As did most Chinese intellectuals of his generation, Mao's education began with Chinese classical literature. Mao's advice in combating the Kuomintang, 1928[95][96], In spring 1928, the Central Committee ordered Mao's troops to southern Hunan, hoping to spark peasant uprisings. [100][106][110] Mao then married He Zizhen, an 18-year-old revolutionary who bore him five children over the following nine years. The King of Rock and Roll teams up with TV’s reigning variety program, as Elvis Presley appears on “The Ed Sullivan Show” for the first time on September 9, 1956. Numerous posters, badges and musical compositions referenced Mao in the phrase "Chairman Mao is the red sun in our hearts" (毛主席是我們心中的紅太陽; Máo Zhǔxí Shì Wǒmen Xīnzhōng De Hóng Tàiyáng)[300] and a "Savior of the people" (人民的大救星; Rénmín De Dà Jiùxīng). Had Mao died in 1956, his achievements would have been immortal. 魚翔淺底, The leadership decided to evacuate. Mao was a vocal anti-imperialist and in his writings he lambasted the governments of Japan, UK and US, describing the latter as "the most murderous of hangmen". Healthcare was free, and living standards in the countryside continued to improve. Thousands of Chinese were killed or imprisoned by Mao’s young supporters, called the Red Guards. Although the CPC temporarily allied with the KMT under the United Front during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), China's civil war resumed after Japan's surrender and in 1949 Mao's forces defeated the Nationalist government, which withdrew to Taiwan. [125], From Zunyi, Mao led his troops to Loushan Pass, where they faced armed opposition but successfully crossed the river. Mao's granddaughter, Kong Dongmei, defended the phenomenon, stating that "it shows his influence, that he exists in people's consciousness and has influenced several generations of Chinese people's way of life. His enthusiastic support for the KMT earned him the suspicion of Li Li-san, his Hunan comrade. Over the years, Mao's image became displayed almost everywhere, present in homes, offices and shops. [5], Mao Zedong was born on December 26, 1893 in Shaoshan village, Hunan. "[289], Mao's poems and writings are frequently cited by both Chinese and non-Chinese. Chinese troops in Korea were under the overall command of then newly installed Premier Zhou Enlai, with General Peng Dehuai as field commander and political commissar. → People's Liberation Army), "Mao" redirects here. He put no value on human life. The people of urban areas in China were given food stamps each month, but the people of rural areas were expected to grow their own crops and give some of the crops back to the government. He also began to suffer the debilitating effects of Parkinson’s disease. [196] But from late summer on, Mao essentially forgot about this issue, until, as noted, the "Xinyang Incident" came to light in October 1960.[197]. Mao Zedong (father) Yang Kaihui (mother) Mao Anying ( Chinese: 毛岸英; pinyin: Máo ÀnyÄ«ng; 24 November 1922 – 25 November 1950) was the eldest son of Mao Zedong and Yang Kaihui . This came as a result of the lack of food production and distribution to the population of China. The Cultural Revolution led to the destruction of much of China's traditional cultural heritage and the imprisonment of a huge number of Chinese citizens, as well as the creation of general economic and social chaos in the country. ", harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFKuisong2008 (. The Peasant Movement Training Institute under Mao trained cadre and prepared them for militant activity, taking them through military training exercises and getting them to study basic left-wing texts. The official Chinese translation of President Barack Obama's inauguration speech used a famous line from one of Mao's poems. The Chinese system he overthrew was backward and corrupt; few would argue the fact that he dragged China into the 20th century. [111][144] Mao moved into a cave-house and spent much of his time reading, tending his garden and theorizing. His policies and political purges from 1949 to 1976 caused the deaths of 49 to 78 million people. He had a Chinese nationalist and an anti-imperialist outlook early in his life, and was particularly influenced by the events of the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and May Fourth Movement of 1919. [203] As Jasper Becker explains: The most vulnerable section of China's population, around five per cent, were those whom Mao called 'enemies of the people'. [298], In 1962, Mao proposed the Socialist Education Movement (SEM) in an attempt to educate the peasants to resist the "temptations" of feudalism and the sprouts of capitalism that he saw re-emerging in the countryside from Liu's economic reforms. [178], The Mao government is generally credited with eradicating both consumption and production of opium during the 1950s using unrestrained repression and social reform. In China, Mao was considered a master calligrapher during his lifetime. In 1944, the Americans sent a special diplomatic envoy, called the Dixie Mission, to the Communist Party of China. While the pinyin-derived spelling "Mao Zedong" is increasingly common, the Wade-Giles-derived spelling "Mao Tse-tung" continues to be used in modern publications to some extent. Tens of millions of people were persecuted during the Revolution, while the estimated number of deaths ranges from hundreds of thousands to millions, including Liu Shaoqi, the 2nd Chairman of the PRC. "[265] Scholars outside of China also credit Mao for boosting literacy (only 20% of the population could read in 1949, compared to 65.5% thirty years later), doubling life expectancy, a near doubling of the population, and developing China's industry and infrastructure, paving the way for its position as a world power.[258][266]. [95][98] The Central Committee again ordered Mao to march to south Hunan, but he refused, and remained at his base. [275] During a speech to party cadre in 1958, Mao said he had far outdone Qin Shi Huang in his policy against intellectuals: "What did he amount to? This is a common Chinese naming convention. "[264] Some historians argue that Mao Zedong was "one of the great tyrants of the twentieth century", and a dictator comparable to Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin,[272][273] with a death toll surpassing both. They nevertheless adopted three policies he had long championed: the immediate formation of Workers' councils, the confiscation of all land without exemption, and the rejection of the KMT. That way you can lessen our burdens. Mao Zedong had four wives who gave birth to a total of 10 children. All Rights Reserved. In the following years he solidified his control through campaigns against landlords, suppression of "counter-revolutionaries", "Three-anti and Five-anti Campaigns" and through a psychological victory in the Korean War, which altogether resulted in the deaths of several-million Chinese. In this, they disagreed with the official line of the Soviet government and Comintern. Ed Jocelyn and Andrew McEwen hope a member of the Mao family will respond to requests for a DNA test.[309]. : The Academic Response to Chang and Halliday's "Mao: The Unknown Story". It was agreed that they would go their separate ways, with Zhu De joining Zhang. Mao told Edgar Snow in 1936 that he had started the study of the Confucian Analects and the Four Books at a village school when he was eight, but that the books he most enjoyed reading were Water Margin, Journey to the West, the Romance of the Three Kingdoms and Dream of the Red Chamber. Mao disagreed with the new leadership, believing they grasped little of the Chinese situation, and he soon emerged as their key rival. [300], In October 1966, Mao's Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung, known as the Little Red Book, was published. [162], Mao directed operations to the minutest detail. He is regarded as one of the most important and influential individuals in the twentieth century. They were initially successful, but were forced into retreat after five days, marching south to Shantou, and from there they were driven into the wilderness of Fujian. By 1971, however, a divide between the two men had become apparent. [131][137][138] Mao now commanded 15,000 soldiers, boosted by the arrival of He Long's men from Hunan and the armies of Zhu De and Zhang Guotao returned from Tibet. Professor Emeritus Thomas P. Bernstein of Columbia University offered his view on Mao's statement on starvation in the March 25, 1959, meeting: Some scholars believe that this shows Mao's readiness to accept mass death on an immense scale. [145] He came to believe that the Red Army alone was unable to defeat the Japanese, and that a Communist-led "government of national defence" should be formed with the KMT and other "bourgeois nationalist" elements to achieve this goal. "[279] Li Rui, Mao's personal secretary, goes further and claims he was dismissive of the suffering and death caused by his policies: "Mao's way of thinking and governing was terrifying. [151][152] In August 1938, the Red Army formed the New Fourth Army and the Eighth Route Army, which were nominally under the command of Chiang's National Revolutionary Army. [72][73] Due to its recognizability, the spelling was used widely, even by the Foreign Ministry of the PRC after pinyin (Hanyu Pinyin) became the PRC's official romanization system for Mandarin Chinese in 1958. Madman who starved 60million to death: Devastating book reveals how Mao's megalomania turned China into a madhouse. [239] In Mao: The Unknown Story, Jung Chang and Jon Halliday claim that as many as 3 million people died in the violence of the Cultural Revolution.[240]. [260][261] Mao's revolutionary tactics continue to be used by insurgents, and his political ideology continues to be embraced by many Communist organizations around the world. While there, they developed links with local communities, redistributed and farmed the land, offered medical treatment, and began literacy programs. [278], Mao's English interpreter Sidney Rittenberg wrote in his memoir The Man Who Stayed Behind that whilst Mao "was a great leader in history", he was also "a great criminal because, not that he wanted to, not that he intended to, but in fact, his wild fantasies led to the deaths of tens of millions of people. If not half, one-third, or one-tenth—50 million—die."[281]. [150] The Japanese's brutality led to increasing numbers of Chinese joining the fight, and the Red Army grew from 50,000 to 500,000. [322] The main repository of his pre-1949 writings is the Selected Works of Mao Zedong, published in four volumes by the People's Publishing House since 1951. [39] Mao graduated in June 1919, ranked third in the year. When the enemy advances, we retreat. [200], Censuses were carried out in China in 1953, 1964 and 1982. The split concerned the leadership of world communism. [250] Mao's body was later permanently interred in the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong in Beijing. In 1921, he became one of the founding members of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). [106][108], In February 1930, Mao created the Southwest Jiangxi Provincial Soviet Government in the region under his control. Ideologically a Marxist–Leninist, his theories, military strategies, and political policies are collectively known as Maoism. Mao was cruel – but also laid the ground for today's China, Comrade Mao – 44 Chinese posters of the 1950s – 70s, Propaganda paintings showing Mao as the great leader of China. Introduced after Mao's death Deng stated that all policies should be judged by whether they uphold the social road, dictatorship of the proletariat, leadership of the Communist Party, and Mao Zedong Thought Until the mid-1980s, when official census figures were finally published by the Chinese Government, little was known about the scale of the disaster in the Chinese countryside, as the handful of Western observers allowed access during this time had been restricted to model villages where they were deceived into believing that the Great Leap Forward had been a great success. Desperate, a majority of the CCP members relinquished control to Mao. [2][unreliable source? [31] Befriending Mao, professor Yang Changji urged him to read a radical newspaper, New Youth (Xin qingnian), the creation of his friend Chen Duxiu, a dean at Peking University. The CPC introduced price controls as well as a Chinese character simplification aimed at increasing literacy. On March 13, 2006, a story in the People's Daily reported that a proposal had been made to print the portraits of Sun Yat-sen and Deng Xiaoping. Conversely, his regime has been called autocratic and totalitarian, and condemned for bringing about mass repression and destroying religious and cultural artifacts and sites. During Mao's era, China was involved in the Korean War, the Sino-Soviet split, the Vietnam War, and the rise of Khmer Rouge. Hua Guofeng concluded the service with 20-minute-long eulogy atop Tiananmen Gate. Remaining opium production shifted south of the Chinese border into the Golden Triangle region. At that time Mao explicitly recognized that anti-rightist pressures on officialdom were a major cause of "production at the expense of livelihood." Shortly after the March 25 meeting, he worried about 25.2 million people who were at risk of starvation. Mao Zedong Analysis 857 Words | 4 Pages. In November 1935, he was named chairman of the Military Commission. Photograph: XINHUA/AFP/Getty Images Shedding tears as he saw Mao… Even in China, key pillars of his economic theory have been publicly dismantled for the most part by market reformers like Deng Xiaoping and Zhao Ziyang, who succeeded him as leaders of the Communist Party. He also notes that "In a chilling precursor of Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, villagers in Qingshui and Gansu called these projects the 'killing fields'."[285]. Mass killings are not usually associated with Mao and the Great Leap Forward, and China continues to benefit from a more favourable comparison with Cambodia or the Soviet Union. [clarification needed] His ideas were not Marxist, but heavily influenced by Kropotkin's concept of mutual aid. [00:00:22] I'm Alastair Budge and today we are going to be talking about Mao Zedong, Chairman Mao, the founding father of the People’s Republic of China and its leader until his death in 1976. The combined effect of the diversion of labour to steel production and infrastructure projects, and cyclical natural disasters led to an approximately 15% drop in grain production in 1959 followed by a further 10% decline in 1960 and no recovery in 1961. In December 2013, a poll from the state-run Global Times indicated that roughly 85% of the 1045 respondents surveyed felt Mao's achievements outweighed his mistakes. After earning big ratings for “The Steve Allen Show,” the Dorsey Brothers “Stage Show” and “The Milton Berle Show,” ...read more, On September 9, 1776, the Continental Congress formally declares the name of the new nation to be the “United States” of America. Brooding over this immensity, [35] A popular student, in 1915 Mao was elected secretary of the Students Society. There has never been an official "Complete Works of Mao Zedong" collecting all his known publications.[323]. 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[ 281 ] brought under collective ownership and the Communist Party members were encouraged to carry copy! 109 ] in November it proclaimed Jiangxi to be the three people that first popularized “massive... Ideological divide within the Communist Party of China divide between the two men become... Involved in fighting [ 63 ] he is regarded as one of the state,.! The 1920s, however, a single-party state controlled by Communist militias aid of the regime Nixon in and.
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