These “Annotations” included information on which manuscripts he acquired certain readings from. The Textus Receptus KJV only. Because Erasmus was not planning on publishing the Greek alongside his Latin edition, he only had access to 7 Greek manuscripts which were available in Basel. There is zero evidence that Erasmus ever made this wager and Erasmian scholar Dr. H.J. While Stephanus was quite conservative in making changes to the main text of Erasmus' work, he noted a variety of variant readings in the margins for the reader to consider. (For a long time, this manuscript was simply referred to as manuscript 1r.) They waited instead to complete an Old Testament text and publish both together as a complete Bible, which was published in the early 1520s. But they do not use the “original manuscripts.” (If you get nothing else from this article – get this – we do not have the “originals”.) Erasmus “collected manuscripts from all the places he could go — universities and monasteries that kept these manuscripts — brought them together, and began to collate them. Erasmus had access to most of the same set of manuscripts as did modern translators with the obvious exception of Codex Sinaiticus, which was not rescued from the trash can at St. Catherine's monastery until the mid-19th century. Erasmus contributed to the Renaissance by revising ancient works and translating them into Greek and Latin such as the Bible. He was orphaned at the age of 9 and was raised in a monastic school run by the clergy. Remember, that was in the days before closed circuit TV, fax machines, email, Federal Express, jumbo jets, etc. Erasmus used several Greek manuscripts housed in Basel, but some verses in Revelation he translated from the Latin Vulgate. Ziggy Active Member. How many of these was the scholar able to make use of? The issue actually has nothing to do with the Comma and instead involves 1 John 5:8. For obvious reasons, the Textus Receptus is also referred to as the "Majority Text" since the majority (95% or more) of existing manuscripts support this reading. He also ignored much older and better manuscripts that were at his disposal. He called them the Hispanic Codex and the British Codex. If he did, did he make use of them? These variations include spelling, accents and breathing marks, word order and other minor differences. On which New Testament manuscripts did the KJV translators rely. William Sandell June 15, 2016 Comma Johanneum, Erasmus, Erasmus Myths, Greek Language, history, Home Page Slider, Post Slider on Main Page, Textual Criticism 1 Comment. ]” (brackets are the KJV rendering of the Greek phrase). There were approximately thirty distinct editions of the Textus Receptus made over the years. In every book of the New Testament he compared three or four manuscripts, except the last book, Book of Revelation. Typographical errors, attributed to the rush to complete the work, abounded in the published text. It is not only repeated in popular circles, but scholarly ones as well. Erasmus "collected manuscripts from all the places he could go—universities and monasteries that kept these manuscripts—brought them together, and began to collate them. If Erasmus backtranslated from Vulgate when there was no Greek manuscript support (as so many TR critics allege), then why did he not add the Johannine Comma of I John 5:7? This would also explain why Erasmus did not have more Greek manuscripts available to him at Basel. A popular view states that Erasmus made a wager that if a manuscript was discovered he would include it. The Complutensian editors did mention that some of their manuscripts were from the Vatican library, but beyond that, it is difficult to narrow it down. Check out Chris Thomas’ post here for more information. This is the so called Comma Johanneum,  “For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.” (KJV) Despite being accepted as Scripture by Christians for millenia, Erasmus did not include it because he could not find it among any of the Greek manuscripts he had examined. In the 3rd edition and following of Erasmus’ Annotations he comments on the fact that he used 2 manuscripts to include the Comma. For example, in 1 John 2:23, every printed Greek text the KJV translators had in front of them read "Whosoever denieth the Son, the same hath not the Father," and the verse stopped there. What manuscripts did people use to create the New International Version (NIV) of the Bible and the King James Version (KJV)? Erasmus also contributed to the Reformation by calling for reform in the Church through his various satirical works. Erasmus’s Greek text was based on the very few manuscripts he could borrow from collections in and around Basel. It is also noteworthy that none of the manuscripts used by Erasmus' were older than the 10th century, and even the one 10th-century manuscript he had he scarcely used as it differed most from the others. [and these three agree in one. Juni 2016): Structure and History of the Biblical Manuscripts Used by Erasmus for His 1516 Edition. MATT SLICK LIVE RADIOCall in with your questions at 877-207-22763-4pm PST; 4-5pm MST; 6-7pm ESTWatch on FacebookPast Shows Radio PodcastRadio Show SurveySubscribe to CARM Radio, CARM wishlistWant to help CARM in a different way? Some verses present in the manuscripts Erasmus used did not appear in the older manuscripts. What did Erasmus contribute to the renaissance? Rather, it is a series of 16th-century printed texts which were, in turn, based on the critical examination of a handful of (mostly late) Greek manuscripts. #1 TC, Oct 4, 2004. Erasmus used just a handful of late Greek manuscripts when composing his text and that since the KJV was published in 1611 many new manuscripts that are older and better have been discovered. The second and sometimes overlooked factor, however, is the variety of ways that the Latin influenced the final form of the TR and the KJV. These extant manuscripts were brought together by various editors such as Lucian (AD 250-312), … For this task, Erasmus was … Please also list and name the specific, exact textual measures that you would assert were actually used by Erasmus, Cardinal Ximenes, Stephanus, Beza, and others in the making of the printed Textus Receptus editions. Some verses present in the manuscripts Erasmus used did not appear in the older manuscripts. From this point Erasmus was raised in a world of manuscripts. Erasmus. Beza's speculation made sense at the time, given just how little manuscript data he had on the book of Revelation, but since then we have discovered numerous copies that confirm that Beza got this one wrong. His was, in many ways, the first truly critical New Testament Greek text. The KJV relied on a handful of very late Greek manuscripts, including five editions of the Textus Receptus by Erasmus, the Stephanus edition, and the Bezae codex. Like most translators, the men who produced the KJV did not travel about examining all the manuscripts directly. The Holy Scripture – Exposition of WCF Ch.1, David Martin Refutes Unitarian Thomas Emlyn on 1 John 5:7. Dr Kathleen Doyle is the Lead Curator of Illuminated Manuscripts at the British Library. However, Erasmus by no means had access to all of the Greek manuscripts, so there was no way he could develop a true Majority Text. De Jonge refuted it way back in 1980. The indications are that he did. Some of these readings persisted through all subsequent editions of the TR. The second edition used the more familiar term Testamentum instead of Instrumentum, and eventually became a major source for Luther's German translation. Among these Greek manuscripts was only 1 poor copy of Revelation, which did not even include Revelation 22:16-21. All of these are medieval manuscripts ranging in date from the 12th to the 15th century (most closer to the 12th or 13th). Pinkeln im Stehen: Die Urinierhilfe für Frauen. He called them the Hispanic Codex and the British Codex. The Hispanic Codex is believed to be the Complutensian Polyglot. He was actually producing a new Latin translation that he hoped would replace the Latin Vulgate. For the most part, Beza printed a text not very different from that of Stephanus and Erasmus before him. We must greatly admire the scholarship they produced out of the resources they had, but over 5,000 Greek manuscript discoveries later, there is certainly more work to be done. Erasmus had only one Greek manuscript of Revelation when he compiled the text for his Novum Instrumentum (the official name of the first edition): GA 2814, which had been loaned to Erasmus by Johann Reuchlin. a single manuscript, minuscule 1r (now numbered 2814 according to the new Gregory-Aland number).2 This manuscript, however, lacks the final verses of the book, and in order to have a complete text, Erasmus retranslated these verses into Greek from the Latin. Both versions use distinct sets of manuscripts for the Old Testament and New Testament. Theodore Beza occasionally reconstructed texts to accord with the Latin rather than the Greek when the Latin reading made more sense to him. What Greek mss did Erasmus use when collated his Greek text that later became known as the textus receptus (TR)? Among humanists he enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists", and has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists". Erasmus produced the Greek Text to justify his changes from the Vulgate. One is that the TR was based on a relatively small collection of mostly late Greek manuscripts which were often not selected systematically but rather because they were all the manuscripts available to the men doing the collecting. This Codex has been dated to the early 1500s, which is why many believe it was made specifically for Erasmus to justify his inclusion of the Comma. The manuscripts from which Stephanus drew to produce these notes were: Codex D (5th Century), Codex L (8th Century), Minuscules 8, 42, and 237 (11th century), 9, 38, 111, 120, 398, 2298, and 2817 (12th Century) 4 and 6 (13th century) and 5 (14th Century), and another 16th Century printed text known as the Complutensian Polyglot. What new Renaissance artistic technique, partly revived from classical times, did Leonardo da Vinci use? The story is actually a complete fabrication. The KJV relied on a handful of very late Greek manuscripts, including five editions of the Textus Receptus by Erasmus, the Stephanus edition, and the Bezae codex. There are many variants between the Erasmus text and the copies he consulted which he did not include in his notes. From this point, Erasmus was raised in a world of manuscripts and became proficient in Latin and Greek. Stephanus also shaped the future form of the text adding verse numbers to his Greek text. It was even a “manifesto,” in the words of Lucien Febvre, that sent shockwaves through a Christian Europe deeply attached to Latin and the Vulgate. [81] True, he did not rely consistently on more than a few manuscripts in establishing his text of the New Testament, and the ones he chose to follow were not the best available to him. Each differs very slightly from the others. Erasmus used several Greek manuscripts, which were eastern / Byzantine in nature. Wasn't the Textus Receptus based on just a few manuscripts? Since he did not originally intend to publish a Greek text, he was forced to rely upon those available at Basel. Today we have a much larger pot of manuscripts available to us in order to get a much more accurate translation. Some of the manuscripts (as in common in ancient texts) were damaged in places. How Do I Withdraw Money, and How Long Does This Take? The original KJV of 1611 likewise marked the text. Erasmus considered himself to be a humanist scholar, in the sense of wanting to recover the classics. One of the more notorious myths about Erasmus is that he backtranslated the last 6 verses of the book of Revelation. Erasmus was the author of five published editions from 1516 to 1535, the 1516 edition being the very first Textus Receptus. A 2nd Edition of Erasmus Greek and Latin Text was published in 1519 correctingnumerous typographical errors. Erasmus was a classical scholar who wrote in a pure Latin style. Did Erasmus have access to modern manuscripts as did modern translators? BACKGROUND If he did, did he make use of them? From the beginning, some of the readings that became a lasting part of the TR tradition were Erasmus' translations from the Latin in places where he had no Greek text. Erasmus famously only had 7 manuscripts on hand when he compiled the first edition of his "Novum Instrumentum omne". Some KJV-Only folks claim there were some 5,000 known to exist in Erasmus' time. There were also places (though very few) that the KJV translators willfully sided with the Latin against Erasmus, Beza, Stephanus, and even the Complutensian. Of these, only Minuscule 42 and the Complutensian Polyglot contained the book of Revelation, and Minuscule 42 had some gaps in Revelation due to damage in the manuscript (though not in the same places as Erasmus' manuscripts had gaps). Still, this should not be exaggerated. Even though the wager theory has been refuted, it continues to persist. They actually printed their New Testament in 1514, before Erasmus, but they did not publish it immediately. I have no reason to doubt that figure. Joined: Jul 13, 2004 Messages: 921 Likes Received: 102 Faith: Baptist. Among these Greek manuscripts was only 1 poor copy of Revelation, which did not even include Revelation 22:16-21. Theodore Beza was a Protestant scholar in Geneva who would ultimately become the successor to John Calvin. This article seeks to address a more specific aspect of the wager theory; that Codex Montfortianus was the manuscript produced specifically so Erasmus would include the Comma in his 3rd Edition of his Greek New Testament. Good job! Erasmus issued editions in 1516, 1519, 1522, 1527, and 1536. What manuscripts did the KJV translators use? Frederick Schrivner, a scholar who carefully determined which Greek reading was behind each verse of the KJV (and thus created the form of the TR published and sold today), wrote that: "in some places the Authorized Version [i.e., the KJV] corresponds but loosely with any form of the Greek original, while it exactly follows the Latin Vulgate."1. The king James Bible base text. Did he follow one of these manuscripts or did he give this order independently of them? Subsequent manuscript discoveries, however, have actually vindicated the KJV translators in this place, and every modern version agrees with the KJV here. 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