Mixotrophic dinoflagellates are organisms with photosynthetic capacity but also ingest nutrients from outside simultaneously. There are more than 4500 species of dinoflagellates. Not all dinoflagellates are authotrophs, some are heterotrophic. It was fre- quently unclear whether a given species was an auto- or a heterotroph, and thus it was necessary to examine the cells for the presence of chlorophyll. Cyst produced by both autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates generally respond positively to upwelling in the basin. They can be either photosynthetic autotrophs or heterotrophs, and they normally reproduce asexually unless conditions are unfavorable. Dinoflagellates exhibit extensive morphological diversity and can be photosynthetic, heterotrophic, or mixotrophic. Dinoflagellates can be extremely numerous, with concentrations being measured up to 30,000 individuals per cubic millimeter. Dinoflagellates. Nutritional modes of dinoflagellates can vary from autotrophic to mixotrophic whereby photosynthetic cells may be phagotrophic—even on other dinoflagellates (Kimor, 1981; Gaines & Elbrächter, 1987). Many dinoflagellates are encased in interlocking plates of cellulose with two perpendicular flagella that fit into the grooves between the cellulose plates. Some are photosynthetic autotrophs and some species are heterotrophs, which get their nutrients by phagocytosis. Dinoflagellates have characteristics of both plants and animals. The facultative or amphitropic mixotrophic dinoflagellates are those that can only perform heterotrophic nutrition or only autotrophic nutrition according to environmental conditions. Dinoflagellates are therefore an important source of food in certain ecosystems. Many studies indicate that heterotrophic dinoflagellates require higher concentrations of prey than are normally present in the open ocean. This thesis expanded our understanding of the autecology and … Most certainly, they have an autotrophic ancestor. Now and again, dinoflagellates in different families discard this chloroplast and become predators or parasites, but afterwards species from this heterotrophic lineages have acquired new chloroplast from new sources to become autotrophic again. of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the ecosystem of the Gulf of Gdansk by estimating their biomass and com- paring it with the biomass of other plankters. Dinoflagellates are unicellular protists found floating in bodies of fresh or saltwater. The story is reverse with dinoflagellates. Marine thecate heterotrophic dinoflagellates likely play an important role in the consumption of primary productivity and in the trophic structure of the plankton, yet we know little about these species. 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