[138], Martin Luther was troubled by four books, referred to as Luther's Antilegomena: Jude, James, Hebrews, and Revelation; while he placed them in a secondary position relative to the rest, he did not exclude them. The New Testament - A Brief Overview 27 Books and 9 Authors This fragment, apparently originally written in Greek, was discovered as a Latin document in the 18th century in an 8th century library. In his Easter letter of 367, Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, gave a list of exactly the same books that would formally become the New Testament canon,[10] and he used the word "canonized" (kanonizomena) in regard to them. (5th edition; Leicester: Intervarsity Press, 1959). The New Testament canon developed, or evolved, over the course of the first 250-300 years of Christian history. In the Antithesis, he claimed the theology of the Old Testament was incompatible with the teaching of Jesus regarding God and morality. 367      Festal Letter 39 (Easter Letter 39) of Athanasius. […] it is proper to sum up the writings of the New Testament which have been already mentioned. Theological Controversies, and Development of the Ecumenical Orthodoxy", "How the Ante-Nicene Church Fathers Preserved the Eyewitness Gospel Accounts", Book 3, chapter XXV: The Divine Scriptures that are accepted and those that are not, "The "Apostolic Canons" (about A.D. 380)", "The Canon of Amphilochius of Iconium (after 394 CE)", "Letter of Innocent I on the Canon of Scripture", "The Longer Catechism of The Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church • Pravoslavieto.com", "Luther's Treatment of the 'Disputed Books' of the New Testament", "Gedruckte Ausgaben der Lutherbibel von 1545", Under Orders: The Autobiography of William Laurence Sullivan, Rise of the Evangelical Church in Latin America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Development_of_the_New_Testament_canon&oldid=993047770, Development of the Christian biblical canon, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Articles that may contain original research from January 2016, All articles that may contain original research, Articles lacking reliable references from January 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [27][145] Because of its placement, the list was not considered binding for the Catholic Church, and in light of Martin Luther's demands, the Catholic Church examined the question of the Canon again at the Council of Trent, which reaffirmed the canon of previous councils and added the anathema against attempts to change the contents of the canon. [129][page needed][130][131]. This list, given below, was purportedly endorsed by Pope Damasus I: [A list of books of the Old Testament ...], and in the New Testament: 4 books of Gospels, 1 book of Acts of the Apostles, 13 letters of the Apostle Paul, 1 of him to the Hebrews, 2 of Peter, 3 of John, 1 of James, 1 of Jude, and the Apocalypse of John. [25] Thus, while there was a good measure of debate in the Early Church over the New Testament canon, the major writings are claimed to have been accepted by almost all Christians by the middle of the 3rd century. Acts 21:21 records a rumor that Paul aimed to subvert the Old Testament (against this rumor see Romans 3:8, 3:31). However, upon the whole it is probably of South Gallic origin (6th century), but several parts can be traced back to Pope Damasus and reflect Roman tradition. 2 Peter 3:16 says: He [Paul] writes the same way in all his letters, speaking in them of these matters. The third list included The Revelation (and it was on the first list, too!) No one else we know of would be a good candidate, certainly not the essentially fictive Luke, Timothy, and Onesimus. Bruce prefers "thirteen" excluding the Hebrews. Little else is known, though there is plenty of speculation. Marcion's list and theology were rejected as heretical by the early church; however, he forced other Christians to consider which texts were canonical and why. Eusebius, in his Church History (c. 330), mentioned the books of New Testament according to him:[102][103]. He does think that the letter to the Corinthians, known now as 1 Clement, was of great worth but does not seem to believe that Clement of Rome was the one author (Book 3, Chapter 3, Verse 3) and seems to have the same lower status as Polycarp's Epistle (Book 3, Chapter 3, Verse 3). It is difficult to determine the date of composition; commentaries and reference books have placed 2 Peter in almost every decade from AD 60 to 160.[50]. [67], Tatian was converted to Christianity by Justin Martyr on a visit to Rome around 150 and returned to Syria in 172 to reform the church there.[68]. F. F. Bruce, The Canon of Scripture (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1988), 117-269. [8] Thus, while there was plenty of discussion in the Early Church over the New Testament canon, the "major" writings were accepted by almost all Christian authorities by the middle of the second century.[9]. [29] These councils were under the authority of St. Augustine, who regarded the canon as already closed. The Canon of the New Testament, an essay by F. F. Bruce. Athanasius (Apol. Other scholars propose that it was Melito of Sardis who originally coined the phrase Old Testament,[60] which is associated with Supersessionism. In two of the three instances that he speaks of remembering 'the words' of Christ or of the Lord Jesus, it seems that he has a written record in mind, but he does not call it a 'gospel'. Gallagher, Edmon L. "Origen via Rufinus on the New Testament Canon." [70] Against Heresies 3.11.7 acknowledges that many heterodox Christians use only one gospel while 3.11.9 acknowledges that some use more than four. As the Confession goes on to state, "ancient custom, or rather the Catholic Church, which has delivered to us as genuine the Sacred Gospels and the other Books of Scripture, has undoubtedly delivered these [deuterocanonical books] also as parts of Scripture.... And if, perhaps, it seems that not always have all of these been considered on the same level as the others, yet nevertheless these also have been counted and reckoned with the rest of Scripture, both by Synods and by many of the most ancient and eminent Theologians of the Catholic Church. (On Christian Doctrines 2.12, chapter 8). The Muratorian Canon included all of the New Testament books except Hebrews, James, 1 and 2 Peter, and 3 … For most, it is an agreed-upon list of twenty-seven books[1] that includes the canonical Gospels, Acts, letters attributed to various apostles, and Revelation, though there are many textual variations. Timeline of the New Testament Canon. Chapter 3 in The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? [105] Pamphili c. 330, 3.3.5 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPamphilic._330 (help) adds further detail on Paul: "Paul's fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed. [136] Catholicism considers the Magisterium, i.e. It was inevitable that “canon” also would become a way to refer to authoritative collections of literature in areas of religion, literature, music, and law, among other areas. Sheffield: JSOT, 1992. Likewise, the length of a ruler’s arm from elbow to the end of the middle finger was marked on a stick as a “cubit” (Latin for “elbow”). Irenaeus (died c. 202) quotes and cites 21 books that would end up as part of the New Testament, but does not use Philemon, Hebrews, James, 2 Peter, 3 John and Jude. The late-5th or early-6th century Peshitta of the Syriac Orthodox Church[132] includes a 22-book NT, excluding II Peter, II John, III John, Jude, and Revelation. The Syriac Doctrine of Addai (c. 400) claims to record the oldest traditions of the Syriac Christianity, and among these is the establishment of a canon: members of the church are to read only the Gospel (meaning the Diatessaron of Tatian), the Epistles of Paul (which are said to have been sent by Peter, from Rome), and the Book of Acts (which is said to have been sent by John the son of Zebedee, from Ephesus), and nothing else. New Testament Studies 62.3 (2016): 461-476. Marcion created a definite group of books which he regarded as fully authoritative, displacing all others. [11] The first council that accepted the present Catholic canon (the Canon of Trent) was the Council of Rome, held by Pope Damasus I (382). When then it had lived honorably in chastity, and had labored with the Spirit, and had cooperated with it in everything, behaving itself boldly and bravely, he chose it as a partner with the Holy Spirit; for the career of this flesh pleased [the Lord], seeing that, as possessing the Holy Spirit, it was not defiled upon the earth. Therefore, it is not known which of the three was excluded that would later be considered canonical. Together with the Peshitta and Codex Alexandrinus, these are the earliest extant Christian Bibles.[108]. 96), together with some form of the "words of Jesus"; but while Clement valued these highly, he did not refer to them as "Scripture" ("graphe"), a term he reserved for the Septuagint. The Formation of the Canon of the New Testament, an essay by Benjamin Warfield. Clarendon Press. The New Testament books receiving the most controversy were Hebrews, James, 2 Peter, 2 John, and 3 John. ; (2) orthodoxy—did the content of the literature conform to the emerging traditions of the church and, therefore, did it cohere with accepted understandings? Robert M. Price argues that the evidence that the early church fathers, such as Clement, Ignatius, and Polycarp, knew of the Pauline epistles is unclear, and concludes that Marcion was the first person to collect Paul's writings to various churches and to treat ten Pauline letters, some of them Marcion's own compositions, together with an earlier version of Luke (not the Gospel of Luke as now known): But the first collector of the Pauline Epistles had been Marcion. Sacred year and new testament timeline ... canon? In Justin's works, distinct references are found to Romans, 1 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians, and 2 Thessalonians, and possible ones to Philippians, Titus, and 1 Timothy. [Wolfram] Kinzig suggests that it was Marcion who usually called his Bible testamentum [Latin for testament]. A brief summary of the acts was read at and accepted by the Synod of Carthage (397) and Council of Carthage (419). By F. F. Bruce. As holy spirit the Son dwells in the flesh; this human nature is God's adopted son" in, Patrick W. Carey, Joseph T. Lienhard (editors), Kruger, Michael. New Testament Period (c. 35-90) In this period there is little formal sense of a canon of Scripture ***** Apostolic Fathers (90-160) Summary: The New Testament is … [126][127][128] It states "fourteen" Epistles of Paul, but F.F. The Armenian Bible introduces one addition: a third letter to the Corinthians, also found in the Acts of Paul, which became canonized in the Armenian Church, but is not part of the Armenian Bible today. ... the Bishop of Alexandria, identifies the 27 books of the New Testament which are today recognized as the canon of scripture. The beginning of the Muratorian Canon is lost; the fragment that has survived, starts by naming Luke the third gospel and John the fourth. Some, such as 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, and Jude, were widely rejected but eventually came to be included in the New Testament. Timeline of the New Testament Books John 14:26 - "But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and will remind you of all that I said to you." If the New Testament had been delivered by an angel, or unearthed as a complete unit it would not be as believable. Testament Books AND 14 Apocrypha Books. The first “canon” was the Muratorian Canon, which was compiled in AD 170. However, these books have never been printed or widely studied. The long process of the development of the canon of the New Testament can be traced through mentions of scriptures and lists of books that occur in Christian writings over the centuries.The earliest full list of the 27 books of our New Testament - no more, no less - was in a pastoral letter by St. Athanasius in 367 AD, about 50 years after Constantine's death. This timeline is intended to list narrative-based canon media by an in-universe chronology. ISBN: 0198269544: Schneemelcher, Wilhelm, ed. The document is incomplete and lacks any solid attestation prior to its discovery. The letter is the first extant evidence of a New Testament with 27 pieces of literature, but the bishop’s letter had a different arrangement from the current New Testament in the English-speaking world. Bible > Timeline > New Testament. 5. Writings attributed to the apostles circulated among the earliest Christian communities. The selection of the epistles was the most controversial part of the New Testament canon. And Marcion, as Burkitt and Bauer show, fills the bill perfectly. New Testament. “Origen’s List of New Testament Books in Homiliae on Josuam 7.1: A Fresh Look” in, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMetzger1997 (. The New Testament Canon, by Glenn Barker. A second council was held at the Synod of Hippo (393) reaffirming the previous council list. The final list did not contain any works now regarded as part of the New Testament. 4) recorded Alexandrian scribes around 340 preparing Bibles for Constans. The canon of the New Testament is the set of books many Christians regard as divinely inspired and constituting the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The "broader" Ethiopian New Testament canon includes four books of "Sinodos" (church practices), two "Books of Covenant", "Ethiopic Clement", and "Ethiopic Didascalia" (Apostolic Church-Ordinances). [4][5] For the Church of England, it was made dogmatic on the Thirty-Nine Articles of 1563; for Calvinism, on the Westminster Confession of Faith of 1647. The canon catalogue gives all 27 books of the Catholic New Testament. The word came to mean “authority” or “rule” when means of measurement, such as the span or the cubit, were transferred from a physical human authority or rule (e.g., a king) were marked on a reed or a stick. Marcion's gospel, called simply the Gospel of the Lord, differed from the Gospel of Luke by lacking any passages that connected Jesus with the Old Testament. [12] These councils took place under the authority of St. Augustine, who regarded the canon as already closed. ", This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 14:47. "[79][80] In all, Origen's canon is suggested to be identical to that of Athanasius.[81]. Const. The Syriac Orthodox Church uses this text as well (known in the West Syriac dialect as the Peshitto), but with the addition of the other books normally present in the New Testament canon. The First Vatican Council on April 24, 1870, approved the additions to Mark (v. 16:9–20), Luke (22:19b–20, 43–44), and John (7:53–8:11), which are not present in early manuscripts but are contained in the Vulgate edition. [citation needed] Similarly, the New Testament canons of the Syriac, Armenian, Georgian, Egyptian Coptic and Ethiopian Churches all have minor differences. In his book Origin of the New Testament[55] Adolf von Harnack argued that Marcion viewed the church at this time as largely an Old Testament church (one that "follows the Testament of the Creator-God") without a firmly established New Testament canon, and that the church gradually formulated its New Testament canon in response to the challenge posed by Marcion. The New Testament of the Coptic Bible, adopted by the Egyptian Church, includes the two Epistles of Clement. In addition, John also sounds the trumpet through his epistles, and Luke, as he describes the Acts of the Apostles. Pamphili c. 330, 4.29.6 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPamphilic._330 (help) mentions the Diatessaron: "But their original founder, Tatian, formed a certain combination and collection of the Gospels, I know not how, to which he gave the title Diatessaron, and which is still in the hands of some. [21][62][63] Scholars are divided on whether there is any evidence that Justin included the Gospel of John among the "memoirs of the apostles", or whether, on the contrary, he based his doctrine of the Logos on it. New Testament. Sola scriptura is one of the five solas, considered by some Protestant groups to be the theological pillars of the Protestant Reformation. ", In the 2nd and 3rd centuries Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History 6.38 says the Elchasai "made use of texts from every part of the Old Testament and the Gospels; it rejects the Apostle (Paul) entirely"; 4.29.5 says Tatian the Assyrian rejected Paul's Letters and Acts of the Apostles; 6.25 says Origen accepted 22 canonical books of the Hebrews plus Maccabees plus the four Gospels, one epistle of Peter "perhaps also a second, but this is doubtful," the apocalypse of John, by John an "epistle of very few lines; perhaps also a second and third", and the epistles of Paul who "did not so much as write to all the churches that he taught; and even to those to which he wrote he sent but a few lines. [134][135], The Encyclopedia of Theology says that the 27 books which make up the New Testament canon of Scripture are not based on a Scriptural list that authenticates them to be inspired, thus their legitimacy is considered impossible to be distinguished with certainty without appealing to another infallible source, such as the Magisterium of the Catholic Church which first assembled and authenticated this list at the Council of Rome. By the 5th century, the Syriac Bible, called the Peshitta, was formalized, accepting Philemon, along with James, 1 Peter and 1 John, but excluding 2 John, 3 John, 2 Peter, Jude and Revelation. Likewise, the Muratorian fragment is evidence that perhaps as early as 200, there existed a set of Christian writings somewhat similar to the twenty-seven book NT canon, which included four gospels and argued against objections to them. [133] The canon of the Tewahedo Churches is somewhat looser than for other traditional Christian groups, and the order, naming, and chapter/verse division of some of the books is also slightly different. It is said that no two scripture scholars will agree on one apostolic chronology. 1987. The Development of the New Testament Canon. Bart D. Ehrman, Ph.D. Delve into a thorough introduction to key issues in the development of Christianity in this course designed by an award-winning professor. This is evidence that, perhaps as early as 200, there existed a set of Christian writings somewhat similar to what is now the 27-book NT, which included four gospels and argued against objections to them. The New Testament in its canonical aspect has little history between the first years of the fifth and the early part of the sixteenth century. Forty-two years later Athanasius still exerted significant authority over the Church. It is not indeed right to overlook the fact that some have rejected the Epistle to the Hebrews, saying that it is disputed by the Church of Rome, on the ground that it was not written by Paul." "Hermas never mentions Jesus Christ, or the Word, but only the Son of God, who is the highest angel. Which created the whole creation, God made to dwell in flesh that he desired. A timeline for the formation of the bible in what we know it as today. The Armenian Apostolic church at times has included the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs in its Old Testament and the Third Epistle to the Corinthians, but does not always list them with the other 27 canonical New Testament books. 30–100 CE: The earliest New Testament works, Paul’s Epistles, appear, probably pre-dating the … The Ethiopian "narrow" canon includes 81 books altogether: The 27 book New Testament; those Old Testament books found in the Septuagint and accepted by the Orthodox; as well as Enoch, Jubilees, 2 Esdras, Rest of the Words of Baruch and 3 books of Meqabyan (these three Ethiopian books of Maccabees are entirely different in content from the four Books of Maccabees known elsewhere). The generally accepted theory is that the canon was completed late in the fourth century. First, the Gospels, they reveal the life, ministry, and teachings of Jesus the Messiah. by Matt Slick The New Testament canon … [4][38] Nonetheless, full dogmatic articulations of the canon were not made until the Canon of Trent of 1546 for Roman Catholicism,[4] the Gallic Confession of Faith of 1559 for Calvinism, the Thirty-Nine Articles of 1563 for the Church of England, and the Synod of Jerusalem of 1672 for the Greek Orthodox. He writes: The canon of the New Testament, as commonly received at present… In the 4th century, the Doctrine of Addai lists a 17-book NT canon using the Diatessaron and Acts and 15 Pauline epistles (including 3rd Corinthians). He developed three criteria (click and scroll down to 3.25.6) that seemed to come into play for accepting pieces of literature: (1) apostolicity—did the literature come from the pen or witness of an apostle? The Cheltenham List,[114][115] c. 365–90, is a Latin list discovered by the German classical scholar Theodor Mommsen (published 1886) in a 10th-century manuscript (chiefly patristic) belonging to the library of Thomas Phillips at Cheltenham, England. The list of canonical books, Canon 60, sometimes attributed to the Council of Laodicea is a later addition according to most scholars and has a 22-book OT and 26-book NT (excludes Revelation). Today, the official lectionaries followed by the Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church, with headquarters at Kottayam (India), and the Chaldean Syrian Church, also known as the Church of the East (Nestorian), with headquarters at Trichur (India), still present lessons from only the 22-books of the original Peshitta. Unger informs us that scholars have arbitrarily divided the canonization of the New Testament into five periods ranging from the first century to its ratification in 397 AD. [143] This is said to be the same list as produced at the Council of Florence (Session 11, 4 February 1442),[144] Augustine's 397-419 Councils of Carthage,[5] and probably Damasus' 382 Council of Rome. The New Testament canon refers to the group of books accepted as the authentic writings of the apostles and thus authoritative for teaching in the Church of God. [34] Pope Damasus I is often considered to be the father of the Catholic canon, since what is thought as his list corresponds to the current Catholic canon. They "call[ed] Sacred Scripture all those [books] which Cyril collected from the Synod of Laodicea, and enumerated, adding to Scripture those which he foolishly and ignorantly, or rather maliciously, called Apocrypha; specifically, [List of deuterocanonical books...]. Th… He believed that the god of Israel, who gave the Torah to the Israelites, was an entirely different god from the Supreme God who sent Jesus and inspired the New Testament. Marcion termed his collection of Pauline epistles the Apostolikon. Thus, some claim that, from the 4th century, there existed unanimity in the West concerning the New Testament canon,[37] and that, by the 5th century, the Eastern Church, with a few exceptions, had come to accept the Book of Revelation and thus had come into harmony on the matter of the canon. The list also does not specify the number of Johannine epistles as three. Bibliography on the Canon for beginning students. The word “canon” has a semitic origin meaning “reed” (as in a woody plant growing wetlands). c. 175  Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon (in Gaul): Against Heresies. [124], The first council that accepted the present canon of the books of the New Testament may have been the Synod of Hippo in North Africa (393). The Synod of Jerusalem in 1672 decreed the Greek Orthodox Canon which is similar to the one decided by the Council of Trent. Accepted by a new search your daily to syrian antioch, print or devotionals, this chapter formatted for one of john is the elder. Metzger 1987 draws the following conclusion about Clement: Clement... makes occasional reference to certain words of Jesus; though they are authoritative for him, he does not appear to enquire how their authenticity is ensured. and new testament timeline begins with jesus, he and phrygia. [16] In 405, Pope Innocent I sent a list of the sacred books to a Gallic bishop, Exsuperius of Toulouse. In 367 the main topic of the letter was the content  of Christian scripture, Old and New Testaments.